1 Judeophobia: Attitudes towards the Jews in the Ancient World (Cambridge: Har – () Judeophobia .. B. AZ 10a-l la is an extended mid-. Based on prejudice and generalization, Judeophobia is the fear of Jewish . P., G. La naturaleza de la judeofobia (Judeophobia), ERC: European Research Council CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique. Main menu Judeophobia. Attitudes Title of work: Judeophobia.
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Antisemitism also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism.
The End of the French Intellectual by Shlomo Sand review – from Judeophobia to Islamophobia
Antisemitism may be manifested in many ways, ranging from expressions of hatred of or discrimination against individual Jews to organized pogroms by mobs, lla police, or even military attacks on entire Jewish communities. Although the term did not come into common usage until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic anti-Jewish incidents. Notable instances of persecution include the Rhineland massacres preceding the First Crusade inthe Edict of Expulsion from England inthe massacres of Spanish Jews inthe persecutions of the Spanish Inquisitionthe expulsion from Spain inthe Cossack massacres in Ukraine from tovarious anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire between andthe — Dreyfus affair in France, the Holocaust in German-occupied Europe during World War IISoviet anti-Jewish policiesjudeeophobia Arab and Muslim involvement in the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries.
The root word Semite gives the false impression that antisemitism is directed against all Semitic peoplee. The compound word antisemite was popularized in Germany in  as a scientific-sounding term for Judenhass “Jew-hatred”     and this has been its common use since then.
The origin of “antisemitic” terminologies is found in the responses of Moritz Steinschneider to the views of Ernest Renan. As Alex Bein writes: Steinschneider used this phrase to characterise judrophobia French philosopher Ernest Renan’s false ideas about how ” Semitic races ” were inferior to ” Aryan races “‘. Pseudoscientific theories concerning race, civilization, and “progress” had become quite widespread in Europe in the second half of the 19th century, judophobia as Prussian nationalistic historian Heinrich von Treitschke did much to promote this form of racism.
He coined jdueophobia phrase “the Jews are our misfortune” which would later be widely used by Nazis. According to Jonathan M. Hess, the term was originally used by its authors to “stress the radical difference between their judeophobix ‘antisemitism’ and earlier forms of antagonism toward Jews and Judaism.
Observed from a non-religious perspective in which he used the word Semitismus interchangeably with the word Judentum to denote both “Jewry” the Jews as a collective and “jewishness” the quality of being Jewish, or the Jewish spirit. This lw of Semitismus was followed by juseophobia coining of ” Antisemitismus ” which was used to indicate opposition to the Jews as a people [ citation needed ] and opposition to the Jewish spirit, which Marr interpreted as infiltrating German culture.
The iudeophobia became very popular, and in the same year he founded the Antisemiten-Liga League of Antisemites apparently named to follow the “Anti-Kanzler-Liga” Anti-Chancellor League.
So far as judoephobia be ascertained, the word was first widely printed inwhen Marr published Zwanglose Antisemitische Hefteand Wilhelm Scherer used the term Antisemiten in the January issue of Neue Freie Presse. The Jewish Encyclopedia reports, “In Februarya correspondent of the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums speaks of ‘Anti-Semitism’ as a designation which recently came into use “Allg.
On 19 Julythe editor says, ‘This quite recent Anti-Semitism is hardly three years old. The related term ” philosemitism ” was coined around From the outset the term anti-Semitism bore special racial connotations and meant specifically prejudice oa Jews. In this sense, the term is judeopphobia misnomer, since there are many speakers of Semitic languages e.
ArabsEthiopiansand Assyrians who are not the objects of anti-Semitic prejudices, juveophobia there are many Jews who do not speak Hebrewa Semitic language.
Though ‘antisemitism’ has been used to describe prejudice against people who speak other Semitic languages, the validity of such usage has been questioned. The term may be spelled with juedophobia without a hyphen antisemitism or anti-Semitism. Some scholars favor the unhyphenated form because, “If you use the hyphenated form, you consider the words ‘Semitism’, ‘Semite’, ‘Semitic’ as meaningful” whereas “in antisemitic parlance, ‘Semites’ really stands for Jews, just that.
According to Carroll, who first cites O’Hare and Bauer on “the existence of something called ‘Semitism'”, “the hyphenated word thus reflects the bipolarity that is at the heart of the problem of antisemitism”. Objections to the usage of the term, such as the obsolete nature of the term Semitic as a racial term, have been raised since at least judeophobai s.
Though the general definition of antisemitism is hostility or prejudice against Jews, and, according to Olaf Blaschkehas become an “umbrella term for negative stereotypes about Jews”, : Elaborating on Fein’s definition, Jjudeophobia Bering of the University of Cologne writes that, to antisemites, “Jews are not only partially but totally bad by nature, that is, their bad traits are incorrigible.
Because of this bad nature: For Sonja Weinberg, as distinct from economic and religious anti-Judaismantisemitism in its modern form shows conceptual innovation, a resort to ‘science’ to defend itself, new functional forms and organisational differences. It was anti-liberal, racialist and nationalist. It promoted the myth that Jews conspired to ‘judaise’ the world ; it served to consolidate social identity; it channeled dissatisfactions among victims of the capitalist system; and it was used as a conservative cultural code to fight emancipation and liberalism.
Bernard Lewis judeohpobia antisemitism as a special case of prejudice, hatred, or persecution directed against people who are in some way different from the rest. According to Lewis, antisemitism is marked by two distinct features: Jews are judged according to a standard different from that applied to others, and they are accused of “cosmic evil. There have been a number of efforts by international and governmental bodies to define antisemitism formally.
The United States Department of State states that “while there is no universally accepted definition, there is a generally clear understanding of what the term encompasses. Inthe European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia now Lw Rights Agencythen an agency of the European Uniondeveloped a more detailed working definitionwhich states: It also lists ways in which attacking Israel could be antisemitic, and states that denying the Jewish people their right to self-determination, e.
A spokesperson said that it had never been regarded as official and that the agency did not intend to develop its own definition. The definition has been adopted by the European Parliament Working Group on Antisemitism,  in it was adopted by the United States Department of State in it was adopted in the Operational Hate Crime Guidance of the UK Judeophpbia of Policing  and was also adopted by the Campaign Against Antisemitism,  and in it was adopted by the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance making it jydeophobia most widely adopted definition of antisemitism around the world.
Cuza organized the Alliance Anti-semitique Universelle in Bucharest. In the period before World War IIwhen animosity towards Jews was far more commonplace, it was not uncommon for a person, an organization, or a political party to self-identify as an antisemite or antisemitic. The early Zionist pioneer Leon Pinskera professional physician, preferred the clinical-sounding term Judeophobia to antisemitism, which he regarded as a misnomer.
The word Judeophobia first appeared in his pamphlet ” Auto-Emancipation “, published anonymously in German in Septemberjudeopbobia it was described as an irrational fear or hatred of Jews. According to Pinsker, this irrational fear was an inherited predisposition.
Judeophobia is a form of demonopathy, with the distinction that the Jewish ghost has become known to the whole race of mankind, not merely to certain races Judeophobia is a psychic disorder. As a psychic disorder it is hereditary, and as a disease transmitted for two thousand years it is incurable Thus have Judaism and Jew-hatred passed through history for centuries as inseparable companions Having analyzed Judeophobia as an hereditary form of demonopathy, peculiar to the human race, and represented Jew-hatred as based upon an inherited aberration of the human mind, we judeeophobia draw the important conclusion, that we must give up contending against these hostile impulses, just as we give up contending against every other inherited predisposition.
In the aftermath of the Kristallnacht pogrom inGerman propaganda minister Goebbels announced: It has no desire to have its rights restricted or to be provoked in the future by parasites of the Jewish race.
After the victory of the Allies over Nazi Germanyand particularly after the full extent of the Nazi genocide against the Jews became known, the term “anti-Semitism” acquired pejorative connotations. This marked a full circle shift in usage, from an era just decades earlier when “Jew” was used as a pejorative term.
Nobody says, ‘I am anti-Semitic. The word has gone out of fashion.
Antisemitism manifests itself in a variety of ways. The forms judeophobiaa are substantially the same; it is primarily the number of forms and their definitions that differ. Bernard Lazare identifies laa forms of antisemitism: Christian antisemitismeconomic antisemitism, and ethnologic antisemitism.
Louis Harap separates “economic antisemitism” and merges “political” and “nationalistic” antisemitism into “ideological antisemitism”. Harap also adds a category of “social antisemitism”. Gustavo Perednik has argued that what he terms “Judeophobia” has a number of unique traits which set it apart from other forms of racism, including permanence, depth, obsessiveness, irrationality, endurance, ubiquity, and danger. If they live in non-Jewish countries, they are accused of double-loyalties; if they live in the Jewish country, of being racists.
When they spend their money, they are reproached for being ostentatious; when they don’t spend their money, of being avaricious. They are called rootless cosmopolitans or hardened chauvinists. If they assimilate, they are accused of being fifth-columnists, if they don’t, of judeophpbia themselves away.
Harvard professor Ruth Wisse has argued that antisemitism is a political ideology that authoritarians use to consolidate power by unifying disparate groups. One example she gives is the alleged antisemitism within the United Nationswhich, in this view, functioned during the Cold War as a coalition-building technique between Soviet and Arab states, oa now serves the same purpose among states opposed to the type of human-rights ideology for which the UN was created. She also cites as an example the formation of the Arab Al.
Judeophobia and contending
Louis Harap defines cultural antisemitism as “that species of anti-Semitism that charges the Jews with corrupting a given culture and attempting to supplant or succeeding in supplanting the preferred culture with a uniform, crude, “Jewish” culture. Religious antisemitismalso known as anti-Judaism, is antipathy towards Jews because of their perceived religious beliefs.
In theory, antisemitism and attacks against individual Jews would stop if Jews stopped practicing Judaism or changed their public faith, especially by conversion to the official or right religion. However, in some cases discrimination continues after conversion, as in the case of Christianized Marranos or Iberian Jews in the late 15th century and 16th century who were suspected of secretly practising Judaism or Jewish customs.
Although the origins of antisemitism are rooted in the Judeo-Christian conflict, other forms of antisemitism have developed in modern times.
Frederick Schweitzer asserts that, “most scholars ignore the Christian foundation on which the modern antisemitic edifice rests and invoke political antisemitism, cultural antisemitism, racism or racial antisemitism, economic antisemitism and the like. Some Christians such as the Catholic priest Ernest Jouinwho published the first French translation of the Protocolscombined religious and racial anti-Semitism, as in his statement that “From the triple viewpoint of race, of nationality, and of religion, the Jew has become the enemy of humanity.
The underlying premise of economic antisemitism is that Jews perform harmful economic activities or that economic activities become harmful when they are performed by Jews. Linking Jews and money underpins the most damaging and lasting Antisemitic canards. In the modern era, such myths continue to be spread ,a books such as The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews published by the Nation of Islamand on the internet.
Derek Penslar writes that there are two components to the financial canards: Abraham Foxman describes six facets of the financial canards:. Gerald Krefetz summarizes the myth as “[Jews] control the banks, the money supply, the economy, and businesses—of the community, of the country, lz the world”.
In opposition to this view, Derek Penslar contends that in the modern era, the economic antisemitism is “distinct and nearly constant” but theological antisemitism is “often subdued”.
An academic study by Francesco D’Acunto, Marcel Prokopczuk, and Michael Weber showed that people who live in areas of Germany that contain the most brutal history of anti-Semitic persecution are more likely to be distrustful of finance in general.
Therefore, they tended to invest less money in the judeo;hobia market and make poor financial decisions. The study concluded “that the persecution of minorities reduces not only the long-term wealth of the persecuted, but of the persecutors as well. Racial antisemitism is the idea that the Jews are a distinct and inferior race compared to their host nations. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, it gained mainstream acceptance as part of the eugenics movement, which categorized non-Europeans as inferior.
It more specifically claimed that Northern Europeans, or “Aryans”, were superior. Racial antisemites saw the Jews as part of a Semitic race and emphasized their non-European origins and culture. They saw Jews as beyond redemption even if they converted to the majority religion. Racial antisemitism replaced the hatred of Judaism with the hatred of Jews as a group.
In the context of the Industrial Revolutionfollowing the Jewish JudeophbiaJews rapidly urbanized and experienced a period of greater social mobility.
With the decreasing role of religion in public life tempering religious antisemitism, a combination of growing nationalismthe rise of eugenicsand resentment at the socio-economic success of the Jews led judeophobiw the newer, and more virulent, racist antisemitism.