Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein, ) on domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, L. ) from the city of Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Heterodoxus spiniger Enderlein, G. Usage: valid. Reference: Anopluren ( Siphunculaten) und Mallophagen 79 – Authors: Enderlein, G. Number: 2. Pages. Trop Biomed. Jun;29(2) The dog louse Heterodoxus spiniger from stray cats in Penang, Malaysia. Norhidayu S(1), Mohd Zain SN, Jeffery J, Lewis.
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Heterodoxus spiniger is found on canines on all continents except Antarctica and Europe. Amin and Madbouly, ; Price and Graham, Heterodoxus spiniger inhabits the skin of domestic dogs Spinigerr lupus familiaris and a few other canids, notably the side-striped and golden jackels Canis adustus and Canis aureus in Africa, and the coyote Canis latransred wolf Canis rufus and gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus in North America.
It is usually found at the very proximal end of the hair shaft, close to the skin, often in the posterior dorsal region of the body Price and Graham, ; Roberts and Janovy, Heterodoxus spiniger resides mostly in tropical and temperate climates Price and Graham,but it has also adapted to more arid conditions Amin and Madbouly, All lice in the order Mallophaga can be characterized by the presence of mandibles for chewing.
Heterodoxus spiniger is no exception. Like other species in the suborder Amblyceraan adult Heterodoxus spiniger also has visible maxillary palps, and antennae are located within deep lateral grooves on the sides of the head. The body is covered with small hairs called setae that help hold the louse on to its host. There are spiracles on the lateral edges of the body through which breathing occurs. The sclerotized sperm-transfer organ, the aedeagus, distinguishes males. Usually these lice are amber to black in color Roberts and Janovy, Like other members of the family Boopiidaethese lice have two claws on each pretarsus, unlike species in the Ischnoceran family Trichodectidae which may parasitize domestic animals.
They also retain vestiges of eyes on the lateral sides of the head Price and Graham, Price and Graham, ; Roberts and Janovy, Jr.
Like all lice, Heterodoxus spiniger experiences a gradual metamorphosis, starting with an egg nit. The egg hatches, and goes through three nymphal instars including molts in between the stages that resemble the adults, but are smaller and slightly paler in color.
The generations are only 3 or 4 weeks apart; they develop rather quickly. Lice reach sexual maturity about three to four weeks after they are laid as nits. Female lice glue nits to the individual hairs of the host, most often very close to the skin. Female lice provide nutrients to their eggs before they are laid; then the females abandon them.
Roberts and Janovy, Jr. Heterodoxus spiniger spends most of its life on one host, but can move from host to host as needed. It is fairly host-specific, feeding only on dogs and a few other members of the family Canidae Price and Graham, ; von Keler, Heterodoxus spiniger was originally identified in Australia on the wallaby, but typically infests only canines. Price and Graham, These lice do not typically infest felinesalthough in one case they were found to have infested a litter of kittens Colless, Colless, ; Price and Graham, ; von Keler, Lice have short antennae, which are presumably used for chemoreception as well as for “feeling” their way around.
No information is available on how these lice communicate with one another. Heterodoxus spiniger feeds on the skin of canines. It has specialized mandibles for chewing and biting through the tough hide of both domestic dogs and other canids Price and Graham, It appears to also feed on blood, as many individuals were observed with blood in their guts Nelson, Nelson, ; Price and Graham, Heterodoxus spiniger is an obligate ectoparasite of canids.
It is also the intermediate host to several helminth parasites of dogs including the tapeworm, Dipylidium caninumand the filarid nematode, Dipetalonema reconditum Price and Graham, While not directly affecting humans, as a parasite of domestic dogs, H.
The dog louse Heterodoxus spiniger from stray cats in Penang, Malaysia.
Infestation is generally not severe. The bites of H.
Price and Graham review several cases where heavy infestations of these lice have negative effects on canine hosts, one of which was fatal. Heterodoxus spiniger carries the tapeworm, Dipylidium caninumwhich infests both domestic dogs and humans who accidentally swallow lice after petting their dogs Roberts and Janovy, In addition, Heterodoxus spiniger carries the filarid nematode Dipetalonema reconditumwhich parasitizes domestic dogs Price and Graham, Treatment of an infestation of lice is with application of louse removal products such as Pyrethrin.
Heterodoxus spiniger has an unusual evolutionary history. All other species in the genus Heterodoxus heterodoxux parasites of kangaroos and wallabies in Australia and New Guinea. heterpdoxus
The ancestor of H. From the dingo, the louse transferred to domestic dogs after European heterododus of Australia, and from there the louse was spread to other parts of the world. Murray and Calaby, This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain.
Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In hdterodoxus areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil.
Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
ADW: Heterodoxus spiniger: INFORMATION
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, “incomplete metamorphosis” is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and “complete metamorphosis” is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms.
Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant.
Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form heerodoxus closed canopy.
The dog louse Heterodoxus spiniger from stray cats in Penang, Malaysia.
Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia. A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
Parasitic Insects, Mites and Ticks: Genera of Medical and Veterinary Importance/Chewing lice
Accessed Date Unknown at http: Distribution and seasonal dynamics of a tick, a louse fly, and a louse infesting dogs in the Nile valley and delta of Egypt. Journal of Medical Entomology Boopidae from cats in Singapore.
Journal of Parasitology Accessed May 9, at http: Informal report to the th meeting of the Helminthological society of Washington, May 17, The host relations of the Boopiidae. Appendix 2 to Keler, S. Phthirapterawith notes on the Trimenoponidae. Australian Heerodoxus of ZoologySspiniger Dipetalonema reconditum Grassi, from the dog with a note on its development in the flea, Ctenocephalides felisand the louse, Heterodoxus spiniger.
Journal of Helminthology Canine filariasis on Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands. Journal of Medical Entomology6: Foundations of Parasitology, Sixth Edition. A revision of the Australian Boopidae Insecta: Phthiropterawith notes on the Trimenoponidae. Australian Journal of ZoologySupplement 6: Help us improve the site by taking our survey.
To cite this page: Accessed December 31, at https: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesn’t cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites yeterodoxus we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control.
Geographic Range Heterodoxus spiniger is found on canines on all continents except Antarctica and Europe. Amin and Madbouly, ; Price and Graham, Biogeographic Regions nearctic native oriental native ethiopian native neotropical native australian native Habitat Heterodoxus spiniger inhabits the skin of domestic dogs Canis lupus familiaris and a few other canids, notably the side-striped and golden jackels Canis adustus and Canis aureus in Africa, and the coyote Canis latransred wolf Spimiger rufus and gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus in North America.
Behavior Heterodoxus spiniger spends most of its life on one host, but can move from host to host as needed. Colless, ; Price and Graham, ; von Keler, Key Behaviors parasite motile Communication and Perception Lice have short antennae, which are presumably used for chemoreception as well as for “feeling” their way around. Ethiopian living in sub-Saharan Africa south of 30 degrees north and Madagascar.