10, 11 Kongesti sinusoid dengan keparahan yang semakin meningkat sesuai dengan peningkatan dosis herbisida paraquat diklorida yang diberikan pada. untuk mengetahui pengaruh herbisida paraquat terhadap bakteri Rhizobium sp. Paraquat is an active agent of herbicides usually used in peat land and. ABSTRACTThe use of herbicide paraquat dichloride by farmers, is one of effort to increase the production in agricultural ide paraquat dichloride.
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Soil microorganisms are exposed to herbicides after treatment, which leads to their interaction. The result of this interaction may be the degradation of the herbicides by the microorganisms and by the way, they use the degradation products as an energy source for their own physiological processes, or herbicides have a toxic effect on these microorganisms.
Herbicide toxicity becomes severe instantly after application when its concentration in soil is the highest. Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture; inappropriate use of this herbicide represents an immense pollution problem for soil, therefore on microorganisms. However, the knowledge about the effect of paraquat on soil microorganisms has been limited.
The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of paraquat application apraquat four nitrogen-fixing bacteria: Pantoea agglomerans, Rhizobium nepotum, Rhizobium tibeticum and Rhizobium radiobacter. The effect of hrebisida treatments was determined by agar diffusion method and the rate of the growth of bacterial colonies in each treatment. In the agar diffusion method, the bacterial strains were inhibited by paraquat, in which the inhibition zone was wider with the increase of paraquat concentration; also, analysis of the Colony Forming Units CFUs mostly showed a declining in bacterial growth.
In praquat with the control, the growth of the four strains was decreased by increasing the paraquat concentration. Comparing strains with each other, Pantoea agglomerans is the most resistant strain to paraquat. Our study has shown the impact of the irrational use of pesticide upon the beneficial bacteria in question. For that, the results of this research have a positive impact on the natural environment, which will have tangible social and economic impacts. The herbislda is one of the most vulnerable ecosystem components, it is easily contaminated by pesticides, however, its remediation may take long periods to restore its initial state.
Herbicides are commonly used in herbosida, by the way, its application has many consequences essentially on changing the microbial populations leading to edit the microbial ecological balance and therefore affecting the soil fertility [ 1 Shahid M, Ahmed B, Saghir-Khan M.
Evaluation of microbiological management strategy of herbicide toxicity to green gram plants. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol ; Ecological effects of pesticides on soil microorganisms.
Soil Sci ; The fate of herbicides applied in agricultural ecosystems is governed by their interaction with soil microorganisms, their transfer and their degradation processes. The increasing reliance of agriculture on herbicides has led to a concern about their eco-toxicological effects on soil microorganisms, this toxicity of herbicides is intensified immediately after their application [ 4 Kumar S, Kaushik G, Dar MA, Nimesh S.
Microbial degradation of organophosphate pesticides: Pesticide seed dressings can affect the activity of various soil organisms and reduce decomposition of plant material.
BMC Ecol ; Ecotoxicological assessment of soil microbial community tolerance to glyphosate. Sci Total Environ ; Moreover, microbial catabolism is a major pathway for the dissipation of herbicides in the environment, some rhizobacteria have beneficial effects on the plant growth and the tolerance to herbicides. For this reason, it is important to study the effect of pesticides on the microbial communities living in the agricultural soils.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; Deactivation of the biological activity of paraquat in the soil environment: A review of long-term environmental fate.
J Agric Food Chem ; Gramoxone is the commercial formulation name for paraquat. It has a persistent half-life of more than days. Determination of paraquat and diquat: LC-MS method optimization and validation.
Food Chem ; Biodegradation of two commercial herbicides Gramoxone and Matancha by the bacteria Pseudomonas putida. Electron J Biotechnol ; 5: Herbiskda induction in Caco-2 cells by newly synthetized thioxanthones prevents paraquat cytotoxicity.
Arch Toxicol ; State of art on the use of pesticides in Meknes region, Morocco. Amer J Agric Sci ; 6: Les pesticides dans le sol: It is used to treat more than 50 crop varieties in more than countries and it has been marketed as an herbicide for over sixty years [ 12 Silva R, Palmeira A, Carmo H, Barbosa DJ.
Medical management of paraquat ingestion
Paraquat and sustainable agriculture. Pest Manag Sci ; Adsorption of paraquat on soil organic matter: Effect of exchangeable cations and dissolved organic carbon.
J Hazard Mater ; Paraquat adsorption, degradation, and remobilization in tropical soils of Thailand. J Enviro Sci H. Part B ; Herbisida paraquat di lahan gambut: Pengaruhnya terhadap tanah dan pertumbuhan jagung Paraquat in peat soil its effect on soil and the growth of corn.
Manusia Dan Lingkungan ; 7: Mechanisms of biodegradation of paraquat by Lipomyces starkeyi. Appl Environ Microbiol ; Bacterial responses to environmental herbicide pollutants glyphosate and paraquat. Caspian J Environ Sci ; Microflora with long-term application of paraquat. J Pestic Sci ; Paraquat in peat land: Its effect on the dynamics of microbial population.
J Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia ; 6: Unfortunately, the data about the influence of paraquat on growth and activities of nitrogen-fixing bacteria are limited in Morocco.
Open Environmental Sciences
The lack of information is due to the fact that this type of bacteria have not been sufficiently studied; the amount of paraquat used in Morocco is not under control [ 13 Maldani M, Dekaki EM, Nassiri L, Ibijbijen J.
To assess the effects of herbicide on soil microorganisms, we investigated four nitrogen-fixing bacteria to explore the relationship between the concentration of paraquat herbicide and its growth response, using paraquat as a source of carbon, and evaluated the herbixida response of these strains by the method of enumeration in solid medium at the surface.
All other chemicals were of the highest purity commercially available. To evaluate the tolerance or resistance of bacterial strains by the use of paraquat as a sole source of carbon, a mineral salt medium without a carbon source MSMC is used.
The composition of the medium pH 7. The media was supplemented with paraquat sterilized by filtration 0.
The composition of the medium MSM pH 7. Four bacterial strains were selected to test their tolerance to paraquat. The selection of strains was based on their ability to fix nitrogen. The selected strains are Pantoea agglomerans, Rhizobium nepotum, Rhizobium radiobacter and Rhizobium tibeticum. Cells were harvested by centrifugation at 4, g for 5 min, washed with 0.
Paraquat effect on the bacterial strains was evaluated by agar diffusion test using filter paper discs 5 mm in diameter. Each strain was grown by surface plating method in Plate Count Agar PCA medium, and sterilized paper discs containing a series of paraquat concentrations 0, 0.
The assessment of the inhibition effect was based on measuring the diameter of the inhibition zone around the paper disc. Tolerance experiments were designed to examine the influence of five different concentrations on paraquat on bacterial growth. The experiments were performed in flasks ml containing ml of sterile MSMC with, 0.
For each concentration of paraquat 0. For bacterial count 0. The effect of paraquat treatments on bacterial strains was determined by two test: In the agar diffusion method, the bacterial strains were inhibited by paraquat, in which the inhibition zone was wider with the increase of paraquat concentration Fig. Furthermore, analysis of the Colony Forming Units CFUs mostly showed a declining in bacterial growth, in comparison with the control, the growth of the four strains: Pantoea agglomerans, Rhizobium nepotum, Rhizobium radiobacter and Rhizobium tibeticum decreased with the increase of the paraquat concentration Fig.
The Pantoea agglomerans strain showed a tolerance to paraquat, in both tests there was no significant difference between the control and 0.
Paraquat – Wikipedia
While in the Rhizobium tibeticum strain, compared to the control, the treatment with 0. For Rhizobium radiobacter, which is the most sensitive strain to paraquat, a high rate of decrease in bacterial growth was observed for the treatments 0. In the agar diffusion test, higher concentrations induced a longer diameter of inhibition zone.
Generally, the increase of paraquat concentration affected the growth of all the tested strains. In our study, the four strains had different behaviours towards the paraquat. This yerbisida be due to heerbisida adaptation of the strains to this herbicide via the synthesis of enzymes able to degrade the paraquat and by herbisidx way the detoxification of the soil [ 17 Martani E, Sunarminto BH, Margino S, Handayani S.
This adaptation towards the paraquat can be explained by the fact that the strains use the herbicides metabolites as a source of nutrients or energy [ 22 Baboo M, Pasayat M, Samal A, Kujur Maharana JK. Effect of four herbicides on soil organic carbon, microbial biomass, enzyme activity and microbial populations in agricultural soil.
Effect of four herbicides on microbial population, soil organic matter and dehydrogenase activity. Afr J Biotechnol hergisida