English Translation, Synonyms, Definitions and Usage Examples of Spanish Word ‘carbunclo bacteriano’. Black bane/bain; Bloedsiekte; Bradford disease; Carbunco bacteriano (Spanish); Charbon bactéridien (French); Cumberland disease; Fievre charbonneuse. Mayoritariamente, la conocemos como: ÁNTRAX El Ántrax es una enfermedad infecciosa, también conocido como carbunco bacteriano, afecta.
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Return to top of page. A highly contagious febrile bacterial disease of wildlife particularly herbivoresdomestic animals and humans, usually peracute or acute, characterised by development of a rapid and fatal septicaemiawith sudden death, tarry blood coming from body orifices, reduced blood clotting and rapid putrefaction of carcasses.
Bacterial Return to top of page. The incubation period is variable, from just hours in highly susceptible bacteriani, to several days or even two weeks.
In highly susceptible species, the disease can be peracute with animals found dead or dying soon after the onset of clinical signs, while animals with catbunco infections may survive a few days and those showing subacute disease may live several days, with some surviving.
Xarbunco disease occurs endemically in some locations, and may appear as epidemics. Sometimes only one animal is affected. There may be one or a few animals affected initially, with secondary cases occurring due to exposure to organisms which have multiplied in the first cases. Epidemics may last weeks to months. During an outbreak the morbidity rate can be high.
Anthrax can still cause substantial losses in developing countries, and in developed countries losses in an affected herd can be high. Bacgeriano bison in Canada, it has been suggested that one mechanism which might explain the higher mortality of adult bulls, is their breeding season behaviour of wallowing, involving using their horns to dig up dirt before wallowing and thrashing in the carbubco produced; when the soil is dry, dust clouds are thrown up.
Repeated use of such sites results in pits where anthrax spores may build up, and bulls may be exposed to aerosolised spores during these behaviours. In an outbreak in Kruger National Park, South Africa,most animals which died were adults “in their prime”, although some were undernourished. Anthrax is characterised by its sudden onset and the rapid development of fatal septicaemia.
A male Felis concolor – Puma collapsed into coma with dyspnoea and died within ten minutes. A Genetta tigrina – Blotched genet had convulsions, bacteruano ataxia, dyspnoea and serous nasal discharge, lapsed into a coma and died within an hour; An adult bacteriani Arctitis binturong – Binturong showed anorexia, lethargy, dyspnoea and serous nasal discharge, and died within six hours. An adult male Arctitis binturong – Binturong developed lethargy, anorexia and serous nasal discharge, was treated with penicillin and recovered within a few days.
A two-year-old male Panthera pardus bacterano – Amur leopard developed lethargy, anorexia and unilateral submaxillary swellings, carbuncl treated with penicillin and recovered A four-year-old female Panthera leo – Lion developed unilateral facial swelling with unilateral swelling and reddening of the lips, was treated with penicillin and recovered. A months-old female Felis concolor – Puma developed unilateral facial and submaxillary swelling, and extreme lethargy, was treated with penicillin and recovered.
Bactsriano two-year-old male Martes americanus – American marten showed convulsions and submaxillary swelling, but recovered the following day without treatment.
A year-old male Ursus maritimus – Polar bear developed unilateral submaxillary swelling, was treated with oral ampicillin and recovered. The carcass of an animal dead of suspected anthrax should NOT be subjected to post mortem examination, as a precaution against contamination of the environment.
In some cases, only signs of septicaemia are present while in other cases localised necrotic lesions are present. From natural orifices, oozing of dark, tarry blood or blood-stained fluids. Sometimes oozing of bloodstained fluid through the skin from subcutaneous haemorrhages.
Blood coming from the nostrils “and other natural openings”. In buffalo, faeces were often blood-stained. Blood dark red, slow to clot. Rapid onset of bloating and putrefaction.
Other findings were subcutaneous oedema 7. Rare in sheep, horses, pigs, impala. Pancreas usually congested B The intestinal mucosa is haemorrhagic and may be ulcerated. Chlorocebus aethiops – African green monkeys experimental inhalational exposure J Complete loss of splenic architecture; red and white pulp both replaced by frank haemorrhage.
The capsule and the trabeculae were the only recognisable structures remaining. Variable degeneration, from cloudy swelling to pronounced focal necrosis. In Chlorocebus aethiops – African green monkeys experimental inhalational exposure. Congestion, fibrinm oedema, haemorrhage, loss of parenchyma, presence of necrotic debris and acute inflammatory cell infiltrate, mainly neutrophils and macrophages Pulmonary: Pulmonary interstitium expanded by oedema and fibrin, with a few neutrophils and macrophages.
Alveoli filled with oedema, often also fibrin, haemorrhage, macrophages and neutrophils. Occasionally disruption of alveoli and replacement by necrotic debris. Surrounding the lymph nodes, oedema expanding the mediastinum, with rare inflammatory cell infiltrates. Meninges of the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic nerve expanded by oedema, fibrin, haemorrhage, neutrophils and often large numbers of bacilli.
Additionally, in the cerebrum and cerebellum, occasionally neuronal necrosis, spongiosis, gliosis, haemorrhage, oedema and neutrophils. In many countries, anthrax is a notifiable disease and relevant state authorities need to be informed if there is a reasonable suspicion of anthrax. Rigor mortis does not develop. From pigs, in which there may be only low-level bacteraemia at death, cultures are made from lymph node samples. Serological testing For epidemiological studies, serological tests may be used.
Serological tests are available only in specialist laboratories able to produce the required reagents. Snake bite usually only one animal.
In horses African horse sickness. Other causes of pharyngeal swellings. In the advanced stages, cardiac failure or cerebrovascular accident. If haemorrhage is present, differential diagnoses include intestinal tularemia and typhoid. Specific antibiotic treatment is recommended for affected animals. Annual vaccination of domestic animals at risk of anthrax is recommended in areas with an ongoing risk of anthrax.
It may be possible with e. American bison, corralled and vaccinated using long-handled automatic vaccinating syringes from the side of a chute. Alternatively, disposable darts or bio-bullets can be used; these can be applied from the air. Herds were located using six observers in a fixed-wing aircraft; darting took place from a helicopter.
It was noted that these antelope scatter, so one must be pursued at a time, and change direction frequently, making darting challenging. Darts incorporated a gentian violet dye for rapid identification of previously-vaccinated animals; this showed up well on the pale grey coat and remained visible for about 14 days.
One female died within four days of vaccination, from anthrax; it is probable that she was already incubating the disease at the time of vaccination. Safety testing of the vaccine delivered by dart under controlled conditions showed no adverse reactions no discernable swelling, no debilitating effectsin 10 buffalo, three Tragelaphus angasii – Nyalaeight Aepyceros melampus – Impalathree Burchell’s zebra, three Connochaetes taurinus – Blue wildebeestfive Phacochoerus aethiopicus – Wart hog and two Papio ursinus – Chacma baboons.
In an initial trial using the vaccine delivered either by dart or by biobullet, individual animals were vaccinated: Doses from single to five times normal dose of vaccine were used; there were no signs of ill effects in the weeks to months following vaccination. Challenge of bacteriabo pigs vaccinated by surgical cwrbunco of the bio-bullet confirmed that the vaccine was released effectively. Impala vaccinated with the bio-bullets were protected against challenge with spores of anthrax, but no against challenge with spores; in trials, non-vaccinated impala consistently died when given spores.
If necessary, small numbers could be vaccinated from the ground, to ensure survival of a nucleus population.
High-risk areas should be delineated. To Top of Page. Wildpro Species Chemicals Physical ” How to Serology Pathological Findings Diagnostic Criteria.
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Bacillus anthracisa Gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus. A gram-positivenonmotile, spore-forming bacterium. B88B Bacillus anthracis spores can resist prolonged exposure to extreme temperatures, pH and pressure, chemical disinfectants, desiccation, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation.
A few cases of carhunco disease have been seen associated with Bacillus cereus. It should be noted that, unlike Bacillus anthracisBacillus cereus is penicilllin-resistant and is sensitive to gamma-phage.
Detailed references are provided attached to specific sections. Variable, may be only a few hours, up to several days.
B Probably days. In susceptible species, bateriano a few hours; longer in more resistant species.
Anthrax may appear as epidemics. It can also occur endemically in some places such as southern Africa B An earlier outbreak, a month previously, involved only one animal.
There was no strain data yet available to confirm whether or not the cases were related. There is bacterinao high fatality rate in susceptible species such herbivores. There is a high morbidity rate. In developed countries, this disease is generally negligible on a national level, but losses in an individual herd may be high. In developing areas, it can still cause substantial losses of livestock. However, in other outbreaks no such differences have been seen. Often, adults rather bavteriano immature animals are affected.
Differences may be related to behaviour affecting the chance of contact with the organism; differences in immune system function related to physiological stressors may also be relevant. In wild herbivores such as kudu and bison, young animals appear to be more resistant to anthrax than older animals.
Additionally, the death rate may be higher in males than in females; this may be due to behavioural factors. Most animals which died were adults “in their prime”, although some were young. However, very few yearling or younger individuals died.